Wesleyan University: A Brief History
Wesleyan University was founded in 1831 by Methodist leaders and Middletown citizens. Instruction began with 48 students of varying ages, the president, three professors, and one tutor; tuition was $36 per year.
Today Wesleyan offers instruction in 40 departments and 44 major fields of study and awards the bachelor of arts and graduate degrees. The master of arts degree and the doctor of philosophy are regularly awarded in six fields of study. Students may choose from more than 900 courses each year and may be counted upon to devise, with the faculty, some 900 individual tutorials and lessons.
The student body is made up of approximately 2,900 full-time undergraduates and 200 graduate students, as well as about 300 part-time students in Graduate Liberal Studies. An ongoing faculty of more than 300 is joined each semester by a distinguished group of visiting artists and professors. But despite Wesleyan’s growth, today’s student/instructor ratio remains at 9 to 1, and about two thirds of all courses enroll fewer than 20 students.
Named for John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, Wesleyan is among the oldest of the originally Methodist institutions of higher education in the United States. The Methodist movement was particularly important for its early emphasis on social service and education, and from its inception, Wesleyan offered a liberal arts program rather than theological training. Wesleyan’s first president, Willbur Fisk, a prominent Methodist educator, set out an enduring theme at his inaugural address in September 1831. President Fisk stated that education serves two purposes: “the good of the individual educated and the good of the world.” Student and faculty involvement in a wide range of community-service activities reflected President Fisk’s goals in the 19th century and continues to do so today.
Wesleyan has been known for curricular innovations since its founding. At a time when classical studies dominated the American college curriculum, emulating the European model, President Fisk sought to put modern languages, literature, and natural sciences on an equal footing with the classics. When Judd Hall, now home to the Psychology Department, was built in 1870, it was one of the first American college buildings designed to be dedicated wholly to scientific study. Since the 1860s, Wesleyan’s faculty has focused on original research and publication in addition to teaching.
The earliest Wesleyan students were all male, primarily Methodist, and almost exclusively white. From 1872 to 1912, Wesleyan was a pioneer in the field of coeducation, admitting a limited number of women to study and earn degrees alongside the male students. Coeducation succumbed to the pressure of male alumni, some of whom believed that it diminished Wesleyan’s standing in comparison with its academic peers. In 1911, some of Wesleyan’s alumnae helped to found the Connecticut College for Women in New London to help fill the void left when Wesleyan closed its doors to women.
Ties to the Methodist church, which were particularly strong in the earliest years and from the 1870s to the 1890s, waned in the 20th century. Wesleyan became fully independent of the Methodist church in 1937.Under the leadership of Victor L. Butterfield, who served as president from 1943 to 1967, interdisciplinary study flourished. The Center for Advanced Studies (now the Center for the Humanities) brought to campus outstanding scholars and public figures who worked closely with both faculty and students. Graduate Liberal Studies, founded in 1953, is the oldest program of its kind, and grants the master of arts in liberal studies (MALS) and the master of philosophy in liberal arts (MPhil) degrees. In this same period, the undergraduate interdisciplinary programs, the College of Letters, College of Social Studies, and the now-defunct College of Quantitative Studies, were inaugurated. Wesleyan’s model program in world music, or ethnomusicology, also dates from this period. Doctoral programs in the sciences and ethnomusicology were instituted in the early 1960s.
During the 1960s, Wesleyan began actively to recruit students of color. A number of Wesleyan faculty, students, and staff were active in the civil rights movement, and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. visited campus several times. By 1968, women were again admitted as exchange or transfer students. In 1970, the first female students were admitted to Wesleyan’s freshman class since 1909. The return of coeducation heralded a dramatic expansion in the size of the student body, and gender parity was achieved within several years.
Wesleyan’s programs and facilities expanded as well, and new interdisciplinary centers were developed. The Center for African American Studies, which grew out of the African American Institute (founded in 1969), was established in 1974. The Center for the Arts, home of the University’s visual and performance arts departments and performance series, was designed by prominent architects Kevin Roche and John Dinkeloo and opened in the fall of 1973. The Mansfield Freeman Center for East Asian Studies was established in 1987. The Center for the Americas, which combines American studies and Latin American studies, was inaugurated in 1998. The Center for Film Studies, with state-of-the-art projection and production facilities, opened in 2004.
An addition of the Freeman Athletic Center opened in 2005 with the 1,200-seat Silloway Gymnasium for basketball and volleyball, the 7,500-square-foot Andersen Fitness Center, and the Rosenbaum Squash Center with eight courts. In January 2005 when the Wesleyan Campaign–which began in 2000–came to a close, it had raised more than $281 million for student aid, faculty and academic excellence, and campus renewal. Fall 2007 marked the opening of the Suzanne Lemberg Usdan University Center and the adjacent renovated Fayerweather building, which retains the towers of the original Fayerweather structure as part of its façade. The Usdan Center overlooks Andrus Field, College Row, and Olin Library and houses dining facilities for students and faculty, seminar and meeting spaces, the Wesleyan Student Assembly, the post office, and retail space. Fayerweather provides common areas for lectures, recitals, performances, and other events; it contains a large space on the second floor, Beckham Hall, named for the late Edgar Beckham who was dean of the college from 1973–1990. In winter 2012, the historic squash courts building on College Row reopened as the renovated 41 Wyllys Avenue, the new state-of-the-art home for the College of Letters, the Art and Art History Department, and the Wesleyan Career Center.
Michael S. Roth became Wesleyan’s 16th president at the beginning of the 2007–08 academic year. He has undertaken a number of initiatives that have energized the curriculum and helped to make a Wesleyan education more affordable. These include a commitment to tying tuition increases to inflation and a three-year degree program that can save families as much as $50,000. He has eliminated loans for most students with a family income below $40,000, replacing them with grants, and ensured that other students receiving financial aid are able to graduate without a heavy burden of debt. Under Roth, the University has opened the energy-efficient Allbritton Center, home to The Allbritton Center for the Study of Public Life, which links intellectual work on campus to policy issues nationally and internationally, and the Patricelli Center for Social Entrepreneurship. Two new interdisciplinary colleges also have been launched: The College of the Environment and the College of Film and the Moving Image. Another new initiative, The Shapiro Creative Writing Center, brings together students and faculty seriously engaged in writing. Wesleyan is well on the way toward completing a $400 million fundraising campaign, and applications for admission have increased substantially over the last five years.