SOCS 637
Music in Social Movements

Rob Rosenthal         

Readings

Reebee Garofalo (ed.), Rockin' the Boat (= GAR)
Eyerman & Jamison, Music & Social Movements (= E&J)  
Assorted reserve articles and music accessible on ERes http://eres.olin.wesleyan.edu and through Blackboard

Course Calendar
September 14 Introduction: Music in our lives
September 21

How movements work, how music means                       
E&J, Introduction & 1   
Rosenthal, How movements got their groove back                        
Hampton, Introduction  {43}

September 28

Academic visions           
Topic for final paper due                       
Adorno, On popular music
E&J 2                         
Davis & Jasinski, Beyond the culture wars                        
Young, Like a critique                        
Harris, Make my rainy day   {54}

October 5

Artists’ visions: Serving the committed, education                       
Rosenthal, Serving the movement                        
Allen, More subversion than meets the eye                        
Gleason, Cultural revolution                        
Hampton, Well just follow me   {69}

October 12

Beyond the committed: Persuasion and mobilization           
Topic for final paper confirmed
Christenson & Roberts, Did the devil… make ‘em do it? 
GAR 1 (Garofalo)  {64}

October 19

NO CLASS                       
Stuessy, Congressional testimony                        
Christenson & Roberts, Making sense of popular lyrics                        
Mondak, Protest music as political persuasion {67}

October 26

Do lyrics matter? Does music?             
Assignment 1 due           
Frith, Songs as texts            
Huck, The great kid con                         
Lemisch, I dreamed I saw MTV last night  {36}

November 2

Artists’ relations with movements and governments
Bibliography for final paper due                       
Wolfe, Dylan's sellout of the Left                         
van Elderen, Pop and government policy in the Netherlands                        
Gray, Rate the records                        
Simmons, The effects of censorship on attitudes toward popular music
Negus, Politics {46}

November 9

The music industry and popular music
George, Crossover: The death of rhythm & blues                        
Peterson, Market and moralist censors of a black art form                        
Kirschner, The Lalapalooziation of American youth                        
Garofalo, Popular and protest music post-9/11                         T
oomey & Bracy, Indie-rock revolution, fueled by net neutrality   {56}

November 16

Case studies: Labor/Proletarian; Civil Rights/Black Liberation
ASHP, Labor wars                        
Brazier, The IWW's little red song book                       
Green, Wobbly songs                        
Dunaway, Talking union                        
ASHP, The sit-in movement                         
Appleton, Singing in the streets of Raleigh, 1963 {80}

November 30

Case Studies: New Left; Women’s Movement
Outline for final paper due                       
E&J 5
Gitlin, Everybody get together                        
Lader, The women's movement                         
GAR 15 (Lont)   {81}

December 7

Case Studies: Rightist movements; other countries
Warren, The Nazi use of music as an instrument of social control
Ward, Lunsford & Massa, Sounds of violence
Southern Poverty Law Center, Money, music and the doctor                        
Schell, Red, hot and rebellious                        
Matta, The “New Song”… in Latin America                         
GAR 5 (Wicke)
GAR 7 (Brace & Friedlander)
GAR 13 (Vila)   {80}

December 14

Current music, future movements             
Final paper due
Rose, “Fear of a Black Planet”: Rap music and Black cultural politics…                        
Chang, Making a name 
Chang/Reeves/Reynolds, Reports from the 2004 Hip Hop convention
Light & Ice-T: The Rolling Stone interview                         
Kelley, Straight from underground                        
Samuels, The rap on rap                       
Tsitsos, Rules of rebellion                        
E&J 7  {85}

Assignments

1)  A paper on "Meanings in music, and do lyrics matter?"  DUE: Tuesday 10/26 (the day we discuss whether and how lyrics matter, so DON'T BE LATE).  Approximate length is 8-10 pages, excluding appendix.  One-third of grade. 

Pick five songs you think your friends are familiar with.  Figure out what the lyrics to each mean (as best you can).  Without playing the songs for them, ask five friends: 1) to tell you what they think each song means, and after that, 2) to recall as much of the lyrics as they can.  (If they’re truly stumped remembering, you may jar their memory by reciting, singing, or playing one or two lines from the song.)

Analyzing their answers then makes up the bulk of your paper.  What we want to know is: how do audience members arrive at their understanding of the meaning of a song, and what role (if any) do lyrics play in that process?  Don't reproduce the data (“Joe said this, Mary said that, Billy didn’t know that song,” etc.); look for patterns and summarize these in meaningful ways.  For example (and these are just examples): 

  • is there a pattern to how people interpret the song?  To “accuracy”?

  • which kinds of lyrics do people generally remember?

  • what does their accuracy or lack of accuracy mean in terms of the role of music in social movements and social change?

Two tips: I've found it doesn't make sense to require complete knowledge of every lyric to say that someone "knows the lyrics."  It's better to think in terms of tendencies.  And don’t include someone who is unfamiliar with a given song as “not knowing” the lyrics.  What we want to know is whether those who are familiar with a song get part or all of their understanding of the song’s meaning from the lyrics.          

Make sure: 1) your conclusions come from your data, not from your preconceived ideas; 2) you look at different kinds of factors that might explain construction of meaning--factors in the music, factors in the audience, factors tied to the reception of the music, etc.; 3) you comment on “the literature”--which includes readings for that day and the previous “No Class” date, and anything else you think valuable—in light of your findings.

Please include the lyrics to the songs you picked as an appendix to the paper.

2)   Final paper:  Explore how the work of an artist or group has been affected by a social movement; or how a particular social movement has used or been affected by music; or how your political life and/or the lives of people you know have been affected by music; or any other topic that seems relevant to the course, with my approval.  Please note a series of preparation deadlines you must meet (but are welcome to beat):

9/28    A paragraph or two describing what you’d like to write your final paper about.  This may be changed if necessary over the next month, but it’s in your interest to be working on the same topic throughout the semester.
10/12   Reconfirmation of your topic, or description of a substitute topic.
11/2     Bibliography for your final paper.
11/30   An outline of your paper.
12/14   Final paper due in class.

Relevant Musical Selections Available on Electronic Reserve
September 14

Introduction: Music in our lives                        
1.  Lee Hunter, Sing Me a Song of Social Significance

September 28

Academic visions
2.  Van Halen, Runnin’ with the Devil
3.  John Lennon, Working Class Hero
4.  John Cage, Concerto of Prepared Piano and Orchestra
5.  Kingston Trio, Tom Dooley           
6.  Janis Joplin, Me and Bobby McGee           
7.  Larry’s Group, Me and Bobby McGee           
8.  Lead Belly, In the Pines           
9.  Nirvana, Where Did You Sleep Last Night
10. Talking Heads, Blind

October 5

Artists’ visions: Serving the committed, education
11. Almanac Singers, Solidarity Forever                        
12. Nashville Quartet, This Little Light                       
13. James Brown, Say it Loud                                  
14. Pete Constantini, Pity the Downtrodden Landlord                       
15. Sweet Honey in the Rock, Biko                             
16. Paul Robeson, Joe Hill                               
17. Sweet Honey in the Rock, If You Had Lived                             
18. Phil Ochs, Links on the Chain                                
19. Queen Latifah, U.N.I.T.Y.
20. Paul Brady, The Island                            
21. Constantini & Rosenthal, Down on Penny’s Farm               
22. Joan Baez, Birmingham Sunday      

October 12

Beyond the Committed: Persuasion and mobilization           
23. Almanac Singers, Talking Union                             
24. Seeger & Claiborne, O.P.A. Shout                       
25. Ani DiFranco, On Every Corner                            
26. Public Enemy, Bring tha Noize                               
27. Jefferson Airplane, Volunteers                                
28. The Wailers, Get Up Stand Up

October 26

Do lyrics matter? Does music?                       
29. Barry McGuire, Eve of Destruction                       
30. The Spokesmen, Dawn of Correction           
31. Mordecai Baumann, The Strange Funeral at Braddock            
32. Beatles, Revolution           
33. Rolling Stones, Street Fighting Man            
34. Thunderclap Newman, Something in the Air               
35. Tracy Chapman, Talkin’ ‘bout a Revolution                       
36. Rage Against the Machine, Take the Power Back           
37. Public Enemy, Fight the Power            
38. Aretha Franklin, Respect                        
39. The Redskins, Kick Over the Statues                  
40. Leon Rosselson, Stand Up for Judas                       
41. Billy Bragg, Waiting for the Great Leap Forwards           
42. The Crystals, Uptown           
43. Bruce Springsteen, Factory           
44. The Clash, Let’s Go Crazy           
45. Little Steven, I am a Patriot

November 2

Artists’ relations with movements and governments                       
46. Leon Rosselson, Sing a Song to Please Us                       
47. Bob Dylan, Positively Fourth Street                       
48. Ani DiFranco, Little Plastic Castle

November 9

The music industry and popular music
49. Paul Simon, Gumboots                       
50. Tennessee Ernie Ford, Sixteen Tons                       
51. The Animals, We Gotta Get Out of This Place                               
52. Bruce Springsteen, Born to Run                       
53. Destiny’s Child, Bills Bills Bills

November 16

Case studies: Labor/Proletarian; Civil Rights/Black Liberation
54. Pete Seeger, 8 Hour Day                       
55. Almanac Singers, Hold the Fort                             
56. Almanac Singers, Casey Jones                                                                   
57. Lifeline, Bread and Roses                       
58. Cahill, Ross & Oye, The Preacher and the Slave                        
59. Almanac Singers, Union Train                       
60. Almanac Singers, Which Side are You On?                       
11. Almanac Singers, Solidarity Forever [again]                       
61. Joe Glazer & Bill Friedland, Our Line’s Been Changed Again                       
62. Joe Glazer & Bill Friedland, In Old Moscow                       
63. Will Geer/Woody Guthrie, Grand Coulee Dam                        
64. Paul Robeson, Ballad for Americans           
 65. Paul Robeson, Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel           
66. Robert Johnson, Stones in My Passway                             
 67. Billie Holiday, Strange Fruit           
68. Max Roach, Freedom Day           
69. Odetta, Hold On           
70. Fannie Lou Hamer, Go Tell it On the Mountain                
71. Jackson Rally, Oh Freedom                  
72. Freedom Singers, Turn Me Round           
73. Sam Cooke, A Change is Gonna Come                  
13. James Brown, Say it Loud [again]           
75. The Temptations, Ball of Confusion           
76. Gil Scott-Heron, The Revolution Will Not be Televised

November 30

Case Studies: New Left; Women’s Movement           
77. Bob Dylan, Blowing in the Wind                       
78. Bob Dylan, Ballad of a Thin Man                       
79. The Fugs, Skin Flower                       
80. Marvin Gaye, What’s Going On                       
81. Jefferson Airplane, Wooden Ships                       
82. Red Shadow, Ass with the Class                            
83. The Who, Won’t Get Fooled Again                       
84. Country Joe & The Fish, I-Feel-Like-I’m-Fixin’-to-Die Rag                       
85. Peggy Seeger, Housewife’s Lament           
86. Holly Near, Started Out Fine              
87. Meg Christian, The Leaping Lesbians            
88. Cris Williamson, Sweet Woman                            
38. Aretha Franklin, Respect [again]           
89. Fanny, Butter Boy                                     
90. 2 Nice Girls, Looking Out           
91. Indigo Girls, Dead Man’s Hill           
92. Bessie Smith, Aggravatin’ Papa    
19. Queen Latifah, U.N.I.T.Y. [again]
93. Salt-N-Pepa, Ain’t Nuthin’ But a She Thing            
94. TLC, No Scrubs 

December 7

Case Studies: Rightist movements; other countries                       
95. Skrewdriver, Win or Die                       
96. Skrewdriver, When the Boat Comes In
97. Skrewdriver, White Power                       
98. 100% Americans Orchestra, That’s Why I’m a Klansman                       
99. Johnny Rebel, The South Will Rise Again             
100. Mikis Theodorakis, To Yelasto Pedi                     
101. Cui Jian, I Have Nothing         
102. Thomas Mapfumo, Butsu Mutandarika         
103. Thomas Mapfumo, Trouble in the Reserves         
104. Bob Marley, Them Belly Full         
105. Bob Marley, Rebel Music

December 14

Current music, future movements
To Be Determined

/* Google Code for Remarketing Tag */ /* Remarketing tags may not be associated with personally identifiable information or placed on pages related to sensitive categories. See more information and instructions on how to setup the tag on: http://google.com/ads/remarketingsetup */