Professors: David Beveridge; Philip Bolton; Michael Calter, Chair; Albert J. Fry; Joseph L. Knee; Stewart E. Novick; George Petersson; Rex Pratt; Irina Russu
Associate Professor: Brian Northrop, T. David Westmoreland
Assistant Professors: Michelle Personick, Erika A. Taylor
Departmental Advising Experts
Chemistry is the science of molecules. Scientific, medical, and technological phenomena ultimately are understood in terms of molecular structure and interactions. Understanding chemistry is essential to effective work in all sciences, and some knowledge of chemistry is useful in such fields as law, government, business, and art. Many aspects of our high-technology society can be understood better from the viewpoint of chemistry.
The following are typical important chemical problems: the structure of DNA, the molecular details of the resistance of bacteria to penicillin, the chemistry of biofuel production, the synthesis of new molecules that might be expected to have medical applications, the consequences of putting electrons and photons into molecules, the details of what happens as two molecules collide, the fundamental basis of the energies of molecules, and the synthesis of nanomaterials. These are all areas of research by Wesleyan faculty and their undergraduate and graduate coworkers.
- Nonscientists are encouraged to consider CHEM117, 118, 119, 120, 198, or CHEM141/142 as part of their program to meet NSM requirements. CHEM117 covers basic aspects of human biochemistry and molecular biology. CHEM118 provides an interdisciplinary view of the DNA molecules and their impact on society at large. CHEM119 studies the basic chemistry of several diseases, including AIDS, cancer, bacterial infections, and the drugs used to treat them, as well as psychotherapeutic drugs. CHEM120 covers basic chemical principles and then shows how these principles relate to important issues in the real world, such as global warming, alternative energy, genetic engineering, and the treatment of diseases. CHEM198 gives an overview of the modern criminal forensics procedures with hands-on experience. CHEM141/142 is an introduction to chemistry that includes quantitative material. CHEM141 can be taken as a single-semester course toward the NSM requirements and can be taken by students who have had no high school chemistry.
- Scientists majoring in areas other than chemistry can prepare themselves better for work in their discipline by having a grounding in chemistry, which will enable them to understand molecular phenomena. The Chemistry Department offers two yearlong tracks of Introductory Chemistry, CHEM141/142 or 143/144. The CHEM143/144 sequence, requiring some prior chemistry and calculus, provides a more sophisticated introduction and represents a better preparation for science majors. The CHEM141/142 sequence requires no previous exposure to chemistry or calculus and emphasizes environmental and biological applications. CHEM152 Introductory Chemistry Laboratory is taken concurrently with CHEM143 in the fall semester or with CHEM142 or 144 in the spring semester. Principles of Organic Chemistry I/II (CHEM251/252) normally follow Introductory Chemistry. The laboratory courses, CHEM257 General Chemistry Laboratory and CHEM258 Organic Chemistry Laboratory, are usually taken concurrently with CHEM251/252, respectively. The two courses, Introductory Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, plus the laboratory sequence, CHEM152, 257, 258, are required for admission to medical, dental, and veterinary schools.
Students who anticipate the possibility of majoring in chemistry should, if possible, take CHEM143/144 as first-year students. The program for majors is described in detail below. A student whose interest in biochemistry arises from a desire to understand biological systems at the molecular level may choose to study biochemistry as a chemistry major. (See Biological chemistry track below.)
To major in chemistry, a student should complete a year of Introductory Chemistry (CHEM141/142, or, preferably, CHEM143/144, and the associated lab CHEM152), unless the student has been given Advanced Placement credit. In addition, a year of organic chemistry (CHEM251/252), the concurrent laboratories (CHEM257/258), and a year of physical chemistry (CHEM337/338) are required. One year of advanced laboratory is required (CHEM375/376), the Integrated Chemistry Laboratory. Chemistry majors are also required to register for and attend two semesters of Chemistry Symposia (CHEM521/522). The major is completed by electing a total of at least three credits from 300-level courses (other than CHEM337/338). All courses other than seminars that are required for the chemistry major must be taken under a letter-grading mode (A-F). One of the three 300-level electives may be replaced by two semesters of research (CHEM409/410 Senior Thesis, or CHEM423/424 Undergraduate Advanced Research Seminar). Other seminars or journal clubs cannot be counted as electives. All chemistry majors are encouraged to do research with a faculty member, including during one or more summers. Financial support for summer research is generally available.
One year of calculus (MATH117/118 or MATH121/122 or Advanced Placement credit with a score of 4 or 5) and one year of physics (PHYS111/112 or PHYS113/116 or Advanced Placement credit with a score of 4 or 5) are also required for the major. Students who do not study inorganic chemistry in CHEM144, either through exemption or because they have satisfied the introductory chemistry requirement with CHEM141/142, must select CHEM361 or CHEM363 as one of their 300-level electives.
Before or during the second semester of the sophomore year, a student interested in majoring in chemistry should consult with the chair of the Chemistry Department or the departmental advisors for specific areas of chemistry (analytical, biochemistry, inorganic, organic, and physical) concerning a suitable program of study. If the student does opt for a chemistry major, these people may also assist in the choice of a major advisor for the student. Students who intend to be multiple majors are strongly advised to consult with their chemistry advisors at the beginning of their junior year to plan their chemistry program.
A chemistry major planning graduate work in chemistry ordinarily takes at least one additional 300-level chemistry course (excluding CHEM337/338) and two semesters of undergraduate research, CHEM409/410 or CHEM421/422. When feasible, an intensive continuation of research during at least one summer is encouraged. The preparation of a senior thesis based on this research (CHEM409/410 Senior Thesis, or CHEM423/424 Undergraduate Advanced Research Seminar) provides extremely valuable experience and is strongly recommended. Graduate courses may be elected with permission. A chemistry major planning to attend medical school, teach in a secondary school, or do graduate work in such fields as biochemistry, geochemistry, environmental science, or chemical physics may request permission from the departmental curriculum committee to replace one of the elective credits in the concentration program with an appropriate course offered by another science or mathematics department. A similar substitution may be requested when appropriate as part of an interdepartmental major. Independent research is encouraged.
A solid mathematical background is important to those students who plan to do graduate work in chemistry. Such students should also try to take PHYS113 and 116 prior to their junior year. MATH221 and 222 are recommended to those whose interests lie in physical chemistry.
Biological Chemistry Track. The Chemistry Department recognizes that a number of students each year are interested in a major program containing both a strong biology or biochemistry component and somewhat less emphasis on chemistry than the standard chemistry major. In response to this interest, the Chemistry Department now offers a biological chemistry track. This track would, for example, be an excellent preparation for medical school or graduate school in biochemistry and biophysics. (Students interested in chemistry as a profession are advised to take the standard chemistry major track, which provides a better preparation for graduate school in chemistry.)
To begin a major in this track, a student should complete a year of Introductory Chemistry (CHEM141/142, or, preferably, CHEM143/144, and the associated laboratory, CHEM152), unless the student has been given Advanced Placement credit. In addition, one year of organic chemistry (CHEM251/252), the concurrent laboratories (CHEM257/258), and a semester of biology (BIOL/MB&B181) are required. One year of advanced laboratory (CHEM375/376, Integrated Chemistry Laboratory) and two semesters of the Chemistry Symposia (CHEM521/522) are also required. MB&B395/CHEM395 Structural Biology Laboratory may be substituted for one semester of CHEM375/376. Also required are Biochemistry (CHEM383) and Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences (CHEM381). The two-semester physical chemistry sequence, CHEM337/338, can be substituted for CHEM381 with the second semester of this sequence then counted as one of the three electives. Students who have been exempted from CHEM144 must take CHEM361 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry to gain familiarity with inorganic chemistry. The three electives normally required for chemistry majors should be taken from the following: CHEM301 Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, CHEM/MB&B321 Biomedicinal Chemistry; CHEM/MB&B325 Introduction to Biomolecular Structure; CHEM385, Advanced Biochemistry: Enzyme Kinetics; CHEM/MB&B386 Biological Thermodynamics; CHEM387 Enzyme Mechanisms; CHEM390/MB&B340 Physical Principles in Biochemistry; any other chemistry courses, 300-level or higher, or MB&B208 Molecular Biology. One upper-level MB&B course can be used as an elective upon prior approval by the faculty advisor. (Note, however, that only one MB&B course, including MB&B208, not cross-listed with chemistry, may count as an elective toward the major.) Also required is MATH117 or MATH121, preferably the former, or Advanced Placement calculus with an AP score of 4 or 5; MATH118 or MATH122 and a year of physics are recommended. One of the electives may be replaced by two semesters of research (CHEM409/410 Senior Thesis, or CHEM423/424 Undergraduate Advanced Research Seminar). Other seminars or journal clubs cannot be counted as electives. Participation in the weekly biochemistry evening seminar (CHEM587/588) and in research, both during the academic year and over at least one summer, are strongly recommended. Students who intend to be multiple majors are strongly advised to consult with their chemistry advisors at the beginning of their junior year to plan their chemistry program.
A semester abroad is possible if adequately planned in advance. Students should discuss plans with their chemistry major advisor.
The recommended capstone experience is research followed by a senior thesis. Successful completion of the integrated lab sequence CHEM375/376 is considered a capstone for those students not doing research in chemistry.
Honors are awarded based on the evaluation of senior theses.
- Students with a Chemistry AP score of 5 may receive 2.00 credits by completing one full year of organic chemistry (CHEM251 and CHEM252) with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a student completes any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, CHEM143, or CHEM144.
- Students with a Chemistry AP score of 5 may receive 1.00 credit by completing CHEM144 with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a student completes any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, or CHEM143.
- Students with a Chemistry AP score of 4 may receive 1.00 credit by either completing CHEM144 with a minimum grade of B or completing a full year of Organic Chemistry (CHEM251 and CHEM252) with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a student completes any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, or CHEM143.
- Students with a Chemistry IB score of 6 or 7 (Higher Level) may receive 2.00 credits by completing one full year of organic chemistry (CHEM251 and CHEM252) with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a student completes any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, CHEM143, or CHEM144.
- Students with a Chemistry IB score of 6 or 7 (Higher Level) may receive 1.00 credit by completing CHEM144 with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a students takes either CHEM141, CHEM142, or CHEM143.
- Students with a Chemistry IB score of 5 (Higher Level) can receive 1.00 credit by either completing CHEM144 with a minimum grade of B or completing a full year of organic Chemistry (CHEM251 and 252) with a minimum grade of B. No credit will be granted if a student completes any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, or CHEM143.
- No credit is awarded for a Chemistry IB score of 4.
- Students with a grade of A on the Chemistry A-Levels can receive 1.00 credit by completing CHEM144 with a minimum grade of B or completing the year-long Organic Chemistry (CHEM251 & CHEM252) with a grade of B or higher. No credit will be granted if the student has completed any of the following courses: CHEM141, CHEM142, or CHEM143.
Special Note: Students with Chemistry AP, IB, or A-Levels scores who intend to major in chemistry should consult with the department chair as soon as possible.
- General chemistry courses taken at other institutions will usually satisfy the prerequisites for Organic Chemistry (CHEM251) at Wesleyan. Prerequisite override requests and related questions should be directed to the instructor of CHEM251.
- The instructor of the equivalent Wesleyan course (CHEM141 or CHEM142 for Introductory Chemistry and CHEM251/252 for Organic Chemistry) for the current academic year must approve all transfer of credit requests. Such approvals are solely at his/her discretion.
- Permission should be requested before the course is taken. The student should submit
- the "Permission to Transfer Credit from Another College or University" form available on the Dean's Office website (http://www.wesleyan.edu/deans/forms),
- the syllabus for the course including the name and author (and edition, if relevant) of the text and the outline of the topical coverage of the course,
- the total number of class hours involved, and
- the name and contact information for the course instructor.
- The other institution must offer a chemistry major and the course must be a gateway course to the major.
- For community colleges and other two-year institutions, a grade of B+ or better is required for transfer credit.
- Courses taken elsewhere may not be counted toward a chemistry major at Wesleyan (except by special petition to the Curriculum Committee of the Chemistry Department).
This program provides an attractive option for science majors to enrich their course and research background. Students are advised to begin research by their junior year if they intend to pursue the BA/MA. Admission is competitive and based on GPA, faculty recommendations, and research experience. For more information, please visit http://www.wesleyan.edu/grad/degree-programs/ba-ma.html.
Undergraduate research is an important part of the program for most majors. Wesleyan's small but excellent graduate program makes it possible for majors to work at the cutting edge of discovery in chemistry. Every full-time faculty member is involved in significant research. Undergraduates participating in the departmental research program normally attend a research seminar in their area, and most research groups have weekly meetings to discuss new results. Students involved in significant research have an opportunity to continue in the University's BA/MA program. Interested students apply in their junior or senior year and if accepted, can continue for a year beyond the bachelor's degree and obtain a master's degree in one additional year. The fifth year is tuition free.
Seminars are a vital part of the intellectual life of the Chemistry Department. Weekly departmental seminars on Friday afternoons (CHEM521/522) are followed by refreshments and discussions in the chemistry lounge. Important scientists from other universities and research laboratories are the speakers. In addition, chemistry students and faculty speak at weekly research seminars in chemical physics, organic/inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry. Programs for each semester are available from the chemistry office.
The Department of Chemistry offers a graduate program leading to the degree in doctor of philosophy. Currently, the program has approximately 40 graduate students and 12 faculty members. The small size ensures that each student knows every faculty member and has the opportunity to become well acquainted with several areas of chemistry. A customized program of study is set up for each student, whose progress is monitored by a three-member faculty advisory committee.
Emphasis within the program is on developing skills for chemical research rather than on conforming to a uniform program of study. Course requirements, progress examinations, preparation and defense of research proposals, seminar presentation, and teaching assignments are all designed with this goal in mind.
An excellent weekly seminar program affords an opportunity for students to hear and meet informally with a variety of outstanding speakers. In addition, the Peter A. Leermakers Symposium has brought eminent chemists from Europe, Asia, South America, and throughout the United States to Wesleyan for a day of intensive examination of a particular subject. Topics have been chemical insights into viruses, fullerenes, progenitors and sequels, molecular frontiers of AIDS research, extraterrestrial chemistry and biology, atmospheric chemistry and climate in a changing global environment, where chemistry meets art and archaeology, metals in medicine, the molecular basis of materials science, challenges to chemistry from other sciences, green energy and biofuel technology, and better chemistry through quantum mechanics.
Course requirements are intended to achieve two basic goals. (1) Acquisition of background knowledge. A central core of material is basic for all well-trained chemists. Therefore, graduate students are initially expected to develop or demonstrate knowledge of an appropriate one-semester course in each of the areas of organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, and quantum chemistry. (2) Continued scholarly growth. Graduate students are expected to take one course or its equivalent every semester. This may be a regular advanced course in chemistry or a related discipline, a seminar, or a tutorial designed to meet the special needs of an individual student.
Progress examinations are given multiple times each academic year. Based on articles in the current literature, these examinations are designed to encourage graduate students to keep up with the latest developments in chemistry. In addition, they are a valuable tool for monitoring the expected steady growth of a student’s ability to read the chemical literature critically as well as identifying any areas where he or she is deficient. Students are required to pass a specified number of exams, which they usually accomplish in 2-3 years.
Teaching skills and assisting duties are given to each student as a means of developing communication skills. As these develop, more responsible and demanding tasks will be assigned whenever possible.
A 50-minute seminar talk is expected of each student once a year. For first-year graduate students, this seminar will be scheduled in the second semester. In addition, there will be a number of shorter, less formal talks in classes, research group meetings, and special-interest discussion groups, all of which will contribute to a student's ability to work up, organize, and present a scientific topic.
After taking three research rotations in different laboratories through the first semester, students are usually then able to chose a research mentor.
Proposal writing is one of the most important parts of the entire graduate program in chemistry. Writing scientific proposals teaches evaluation of the literature, integration of knowledge from several areas, formulation of scientific questions, design of a research project to answer those questions, scientific writing, and the defense of a project proposal. Two proposals are required, one during the second year related to the student's research and a second, in the fourth year, on a separate topic.
The thesis research and dissertation―an original contribution worthy of publication―is the single most important requirement. Finally, the candidate defends the thesis before his/her committee and then presents a final seminar to the department.
Guiding Committee: Lutz Hüwel, Physics; Joseph Knee, Chemistry; Stewart E. Novick, Chemistry; Brian Stewart, Physics
Beginning students in the chemistry or physics graduate programs may petition their department for admission to the interdisciplinary program in chemical physics. The philosophy underlying the program is that the solution to contemporary problems must increasingly be sought not within a single traditional specialty but from the application of different disciplines to particular problems. Students in the program will pursue a course of study and research that will familiarize them with both the Physics and Chemistry departments and, in particular, with those areas of overlapping interest that we broadly categorize as chemical physics.
Requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Students entering the program will choose an interdepartmental committee to oversee their progress toward the PhD degree. Students will still receive a PhD in either chemistry or physics. Chemical physics students will be expected to take courses from both departments. The core of the program of courses consists of quantum chemistry (offered by the Chemistry Department), quantum mechanics (offered by either department), electrodynamics (offered by the Physics Department), statistical mechanics (either department), and mathematical physics (Physics Department). For details of the course offerings, see the course listings under chemistry and physics.
Seminars. Students will participate in the weekly chemical physics seminar series and will be expected to present at least one talk per year.
Examinations. Students will follow the examination policy of their sponsoring department. Those chemical physics students pursuing a PhD in chemistry will take periodic progress exams based on the current literature, and in their second year, an oral qualifying exam includes a short written proposal of their future PhD research. A second proposal, external to their research, is submitted in the fourth year. In addition, there is a final oral PhD thesis defense. For details, see the requirements for the PhD in chemistry. For those chemical physics students pursuing a PhD in physics, there are three formal examinations: a written examination at an advanced undergraduate level (taken in the 3rd semester), an oral PhD candidacy examination (no later than the 5th semester), and a final oral PhD thesis defense. For details, see the requirements for the PhD in physics.
Research. Students in chemical physics may do research under the direction of any member of either department. To aid the student in this selection and to sample the flavor of research activities in both departments, students will participate briefly in the research of each department. During the first year, students will rotate among as many as two research groups from each department, spending between four and six weeks in each group. It is anticipated that a student will be able to make a formal choice of a research advisor by the end of the first academic year at Wesleyan.
Guiding Committee: David L. Beveridge, Chemistry; Ishita Mukerji, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
The Chemistry Department participates in an interdisciplinary program of graduate study in molecular biophysics with the Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (MB&B), Biology, and Physics. The program provides a course of study and research that overlaps the disciplinary boundaries of chemistry, physics, biology, and molecular biology and is designed for students with undergraduate background in any one of these areas. Students in the program are enrolled in one of the participating departments and fulfill canonical requirements of the department. In addition, they take advanced courses in molecular biophysics and pursue dissertation research with one of the faculty in the program. Centerpieces of the program are the weekly interdepartmental journal club in molecular biophysics and an annual off-campus research retreat. Both activities bring together students, research associates, and faculty from all participating departments and foster interdisciplinary collaborative projects.
The molecular biophysics program receives special support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the form of a training grant. The program is affiliated with interest groups such as the New York Structural Biology (NYSB) and the New York Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (NYBCB) groups. All students are encouraged to join and attend national meetings of the Biophysical Society.
Students interested in this program apply for admission to the Chemistry Department or to the other two participating departments. Application forms for these departments are available at www.wesleyan.edu/chem.