SOCS 639
Europe in the Age of Violence, 1914-1945

Nathanael Greene


James Joll, The Origins of the First World War
Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution
Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism
A. J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War
Eugen Weber, The Hollow Years 

George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia
Ian Kershaw, Hitler, Nemesis, 1936-1945
R. J. B. Bosworth, Mussolini


For several of the class sessions indicated below alternative choices are suggested.  If you wish, you may substitute choices of your own for any of these required readings as long as they directly address the subjects at hand.  You are urged to browse through the stacks in Olin Library and begin to acquire a working bibliography.

Although there is no textbook recommended for the course, you may wish to choose one from Olin Library.  Among the reasonably solid texts are:

            H. Stuart Hughes, Contemporary Europe: A History
            Robert Paxton, Europe in the 20th Century
            Mark Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century


Two course papers are required: the first, is due on Wednesday, July 9, at the beginning of class; the second is due on Wednesday, July 30, also at the beginning of class.  Paper topics will be distributed prior to the due date, the first to be handed out on July 2, the second on July 23.  Papers must be no more than five or six printed, double-spaced pages, exclusive of footnotes or endnotes.  References should be carefully indicated in such notes.There will be no examinations in this course.  Participation in class discussions is expected, and will be taken into account in determining in assessing your work in the course.

Course Schedule
June 23 Introduction: The Promise of the 20th Century
June 25 The Great War, 1914-1918: Origins and Consequences

James Joll, The Origins of the First World War

June 30 Lenin and the Russian Revolution

Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, chapters 1-4

July 2 Stalin, the Soviet Union, and International Communism

Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, chapters 5-6

July 7

Italian Fascism: Mussolini’s Example

Benito Mussolini, “The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism,” [to be distributed] and
Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, chapters 1 and 2, pages 58-64, sections of following chapters concerned with Mussolini and Italian Fascism, and chapter 8, or R. J. B. Bosworth, Mussolini, chapters 5-11, chapters 1-4 recommended

July 9

Germany: the Weimar Republic, 1919-1933

Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, sections in chapters 3 and 4, and Ian Kershaw, Hitler, chapters 1 and 2

Excerpts from the film Triumph of the Will, to be shown in class

*** PAPER DUE ***

July 14

Germany: Hitler’s Revolution, 1933-1939

Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, chapters 5 and 6, or Ian Kershaw, Hitler, chapters 3-6, or Ian Kershaw,  Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis, “1936: Hitler Triumphant,” and chapters 1 and 3

July 16

France: the Hollow Years?

Eugen Weber, The Hollow Years,  chapters 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, or Nathanael Greene, From Versailles to Vichy: The Third French Republic, 1919-1940 [Olin Library], or Marc Bloch, The Strange Defeat [Olin Library]

July 21

The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, sections concerned with Spain, and, to be arranged on the afternoon of this day, the film To Die in Madrid, and
at Olin Library, select and browse through one or more works on the Civil War.  You may choose from an array of exceptional memoirs from observers or participants, such as George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia, or popular or academic studies, such as Paul Preston’s accounts and biography of General Franco.

July 23

Origins of the Second World War: Chamberlain and daladier/Hitler and mussolini

J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, or Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis, chapters 2, 4 and 5, or R. J. B. Bosworth, Mussolini, chapters 14 and 15

July 28

The Second World War: Collaboration and Resistance

Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, chapter 6, and
Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis, chapters 12-17, or R. J. B. Bosworth, Mussolini, chapters 16 and 17

Jacques Chirac, excerpts from speech in 1995, and Philippe Pétain, excerpts from trial, 1945 [to be distributed] and
André Malraux,  “When the French Lived in Darkness” [to be distributed.

Excerpts from the film “The Sorrow and the Pity,” to be shown at the beginning of class.

July 30 Europe in 1945 and Conclusions.


Suggested Bibliography for Reference

Charles Esdaile, Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War, 1808-1939            |
Gerald Brenan, The Spanish Labyrinth
Alun Kenwood, The Spanish Civil War: A Reader
Paul Preston, The Coming of the Spanish Civil War           
Stanley Payne, Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977
Sheelagh Ellwood, Franco
William J. Callahan, The Catholic Church in Spain, 1875-1998

Participants and Observers:           
Arturo Barea, The Forging of a Rebel, Part III, “The Clash”
Dolores Ibarruri, They Shall Not Pass           
Harry Fisher, Comrades
Franz Borkenau, The Spanish Cockpit
William Foss and Cecil Gerahty, The Spanish Arena
Alvah Bessie, Men in Battle
Ralph Bates, Of Legendary Time
Peter Stansky, Journey to the Frontier
André Malraux, Man’s Hope
Ernest Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls
Claude Bowers, My Mission to Spain [United States Ambassador]
Elliot Paul, The Life and Death of a Spanish Town
Constancia de la Mora, In Place of Splendour
Herbert Matthews, Two Wars and More to Come
Valentine Cunningham, Spanish Front: Writers on the Civil War
Ruiz Vilaplana, Burgos Justice: A Year’s Experience in Spain
Murray Sperber, And I Remember Spain: A Spanish Civil War Anthology
Anna Louise Strong, Spain in Arms
Arnold Lunn, Spanish Rehearsal
S. Mangini, Memories of Resistance: Women’s Voices from the Spanish Civil War
Paul Preston, Doves of War: Four Women of Spain 

General Histories:
Frank Jellinek, The Civil War in Spain           
Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War           
Gabriel Jackson, The Republic and Civil War in Spain
Stanley Payne, The Spanish Revolution           
Stanley Payne, Spain’s First Democracy
Pierre Broué and Emile Témime, The Revolution and Civil War in Spain           
Patricia van der Esch, Prelude to War           
Paul Preston, The Spanish Civil War
Dante Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, 1936-1941
Raymond Carr, The Spanish Tragedy: The Civil War in Perspective
Paul Preston, ed., Revolution and War in Spain, 1931-1939
Ronald Fraser, Blood of Spain: An Oral History of the Spanish Civil War
George R. Esenwein, The Spanish Civil War in Context, 1931-1939
Sheelagh Ellwood, The Spanish Civil War
José Sanchez, The Spanish Civil War as a Religious Tragedy
Peter Wyden, The Passionate War: A Narrative History
Harry Browne, Spain’s Civil War
Richard Robinson, The Origins of Franco’s Spain, 1931-1936
Wayne H. Bowen, Spaniards and Nazi Germany
Burnett Balloten, The Spanish Civil War
Raymond Carr, The Civil War in Spain
Helen Graham, The Spanish Republic at War, 1936-1939
Michael Seidman, Republic of Egos: A Social History of the Spanish Civil War 

General Franco and the Nationalists:           
George Hills, Franco: The Man and His Nation           
Paul Preston, Franco
J. W. D. Trythall, Franco
Juan Fusi, Franco: A Biography           
Herbert R. Southworth, The Myth of the Franco Crusade
Spain, Ministerio Fiscal, The General Cause: The Red Domination of Spain           
Luis Bolin, Spain: The Vital Years           
Robert Brasillach, Histoire de la guerre d’Espagne
Gregorio Marañón, The Liberal in the Looking Glass
Herbert R. Southworth, Conspiracy and the Spanish Civil War: The Brainwashing of Francisco Franco 

Socialism, Communism, and Anarchism:           
Helen Graham, Socialism and War
Helen Graham and Martin Alexander, eds., The French and Spanish Popular Fronts
Paul Heywood, Marxism and the Failure of Organized Socialism in Spain           
E. H. Carr, The Comintern and the Spanish Civil War           
David Cattell, Communism and the Spanish Civil War
Burnett Bolloten, The Grand Camouflage: The Spanish Civil War and Revolution, 1936-1939
José Peirats, Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War           
Robert Alexander, The Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War
Robert Kern, Red Years, Black Years: Spanish Anarchism, 1911-1937
Sam Dolgoff, The Anarchist Collectives
Martha Ackelsberg, Free Women of Spain
Michael Seidman, Workers Against Work
Stanley Payne, The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism 

Gerald Howson,  Arms for Spain: the Untold Story of the Spanish Civil War Michael W. Jackson, Fallen Sparrows: The International Brigades
Stanley Weintraub, The Last Great Cause: Intellectuals and the Spanish Civil War
Vincent Brome, The International Brigades
Verle B. Johnston, Legions of Babel: The International Brigades